In addition, the lab has a range of commercial 6-component force/torque sensors that can be custom-mounted and can resolve unsteady forces and torques (up to about 1kHz):
- ATI Nano-17 17mm diameter; Fz = 70N, Fx,Fy = 50N Tx,Ty = 0.5Nm.
- ATI Mini-40 40mm diameter; Fz = 240N, Fx,Fy = 80N, Tx,Ty = 4Nm.
- ATI Delta IP65 126mm diameter; Fz = 1980N, Fx,Fy = 660N, Tx,Ty=60Nm.
Lastly we have a Futek TFF400 7 Nm torque sensor
Lasers, Cameras and PIV systems
We have LaVision PIV systems for 2D (planar), 3D (stereo) and 3D volumetric (Tomographic) PIV, and the use of several laser systems that are suitable for PIV, visualization, etc. These systems are used for measurements of velocity fields in both animal flight and engineering testing environments.
- Pixtronix 10kHz 30mJ/pulse Nd:YTG 532 nm laser
- Litron 200Hz dual pulse 100mJ/pulse 532 nm Nd:YAG laser
- Quantel 15 Hz dual pulse 200mJ/pulse 532 nm Nd:YAG laser
- New Wave 15 Hz dual pulse 15 mJ/pulse 532 Nd:YAG laser
- Argon Ion 10W CW tunable laser
We also have multiple high speed cameras for PIV, imaging of animal flight kinematics and fluid-structure interactions. These systems include two Photron SA3s (1kHz, 1MP), four Photron SA4s, (3.6kHz, 1MP), one Photron SA5, (7kHz, 1MP), and four Phantom Miro 320s (1.3 kHz, 2MP) and four LaVision sCMOS systems (50Hz, 4MP).
We have multiple-channel hot wire anemometer systems and both single and x-wire hot wire probes. The probes can be mounted on 2-axis traverse for boundary layer and wake measurements.
Animal flight recording
For animal flight measurements, we have, as mentioned above, multiple cameras for 3D recording of body and wing kinematics, as well as tethered and wireless recording systems for measurement of muscle activity, acoustic fields, and inertial motion (3-axis acceleration and 3-axis angular velocity).